Let’s start, by understanding some of the terminologies involved in the making of a propeller. It has two major components, often expressed in inches. There are two major dimensions that we come across in any propeller; first being the diameter and the second being the pitch.
For example: A 10 * 4.5 propeller has a diameter of 10 inches and a pitch of 4.5 inches. The diameter of the propeller is measured as the end to end length of the propeller and the pitch of the propeller defines the amount of forward motion generated per rotation.
The diameter of the propeller, directly affects its efficiency. The larger the diameter, the more is the lift, generated at lower rotational speeds. This is because it covers a larger area per rotation. Thus larger or smaller diameter props are chosen accordingly. We might also consider the pitch; as we increase the pitch of the propeller, the amount of wind sucked in through it, also increases. Thus it gives rise to higher RPMs and are better used in increasing the speed of the drone.
Thus, when using a quad to carry a payload, which is the additional load, other than the curb weight, it is ideal to use a larger diameter propeller with minimal pitch, so as to generate a good amount of lift at lower RPMs. It is advisable to use larger pitched propellers in case of faster moving drones.
Here are some commonly used propellers: